Reliable vascular access is necessary for effective hemodialysis. Guidelines recommend chronic hemodialysis via an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), however, in a significant number of patients, permanent central venous catheters (CVCs) are used. The use of a tunneled catheter is acceptable if the estimated dialysis time is less than a year or it is not possible to create an AVF. The main complications associated with CVC include thrombosis and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), which may result in loss of vascular access. The common practice is to use locking solutions to maintain catheter patency and minimize the risk of CRBSI. This paperwork summarizes information on currently available locking solutions for dialysis catheters along with their effectiveness in preventing thrombotic and infectious complications and describes methods of dealing with catheter dysfunction. The PubMed database was systematically searched for articles about locking solutions used in permanent CVCs in hemodialysis patients. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies and international guidelines. Articles on end-stage kidney disease patients dialyzed through a permanent CVC were included. Information from each primary study was extracted using pre-determined criteria including thrombotic and infectious complications of CVC use, focusing on permanent CVC if sufficient data were available. Of the currently available substances, it seems that citrate at a concentration of 4% has the best cost-effectiveness and safety profile, which is reflected in the international guidelines. Recent studies suggest the advantage of 2+1 protocols, i.e., taurolidine-based solutions with addition of urokinase once a week, although it needs to be confirmed by further research. Regardless of the type of locking solution, if prophylaxis with a thrombolytic agent is chosen, it should be started from the very beginning to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications. In case of CVC dysfunction, irrespective of the thrombolysis attempt, catheter replacement should be planned as soon as possible.Reference:
Szymańska J, Kakareko K, Rydzewska-Rosołowska A, Głowińska I, Hryszko T. Locked Away-Prophylaxis and Management of Catheter Related Thrombosis in Hemodialysis. J Clin Med. 2021 May 21;10(11):2230. doi: 10.3390/jcm10112230. PMID: 34063913.