“Anthracycline extravasation can present with various symptoms that can be acute, or else can develop over the days after the event. Acute symptoms include a burning pain and swelling at the infusion site. For the next few days it may progress to blister formation, full thickness skin necrosis, and can even cause damage to tendons, nerves, bones, and joints, which can develop over weeks, depending on the location of the infusion.3 It has been shown that doxorubicin can be detected in the tissue as long as 5 months after the extravasation event, thus explaining the long-lasting effects of extravasation injury.4 Many extravasation injuries require surgical excision of necrotic tissue, followed by skin grafting or coverage with pedicle surgical flaps. In some cases, amputations and even death have resulted. Extravasation injuries have a devastating effect on the emotional health and quality of life in cancer patients, and are a common cause of medical negligence lawsuits.”Reference:
Hamblin MR. Photobiomodulation Therapy for Treatment of Extravasation Injuries in Cancer Chemotherapy. Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg. 2023 Jan;41(1):1-2. doi: 10.1089/photob.2022.0126. PMID: 36629901.