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Extravasation associated with thiopental and propofol

"The present review summarizes our findings from three areas of research regarding the use of medicines in the operating room" Shibata (2021).

Abstract:

Various issues related to clinical use of medicines remain unclear, and pharmacists are expected to establish evidence for appropriate use of medicines. The present review summarizes our findings from three areas of research regarding the use of medicines in the operating room: 1) We evaluated the extent of extravasation injury due to thiopental (2.5 mg/100 μL) and propofol (1.0 mg/100 μL) at the macroscopic and histopathologic levels in a rat model. Thiopental, which causes tissue necrosis, can be classified as a “vesicant”, and propofol can be classified as an “irritant”. Moreover, warming strongly exacerbated the degeneration or necrosis induced by extravasation of thiopental. 2) The cytotoxicity of povidone-iodine solution (PVP-I) for ophthalmic use and that of polyvinyl alcohol-iodine solution (PAI) was compared using a human corneal epithelial cell line. Despite exhibiting equivalent antiseptic effects, the cytotoxicity of PVP-I diluted 16-fold was greater than that of PAI diluted 6-fold. After inactivation of iodine, the cytotoxicity of PVP-I persisted; therefore, to avoid corneal damage, antisepsis should be achieved with PAI. 3) The stability of 1 μg/mL adrenaline when used as an intraocular irrigating solution to maintain pupil dilation was evaluated. After mixing for 6 h, the adrenaline concentration was 65.2% (pH 8.0) of the initial concentration. Moreover, the low concentration of sodium bisulfite in the irrigating solution could have caused adrenaline reduction. Our results strongly suggest that intraocular irrigation solution containing adrenaline should be prepared just prior to use in surgery.

Reference:

Shibata Y. . Yakugaku Zasshi. 2021;141(1):25-31. Japanese. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.20-00190. PMID: 33390443.