What is the risk of HIV infection in blood donors in the Southeastern United States

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Here we calculate HIV prevalence, incidence, and residual risk in Southeastern US blood donors and report risk factors disclosed by incident donors in counseling sessions” Crowder et al (2016).

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive blood donors pose a risk to blood safety. The Southeastern United States has the highest reported HIV infection rates. Here we calculate HIV prevalence, incidence, and residual risk in Southeastern US blood donors and report risk factors disclosed by incident donors in counseling sessions.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: American Red Cross donation and testing data from 2009 to 2014 for three Southeastern collection regions were used to calculate HIV prevalence, incidence, and residual risk. Incident donors had a previous HIV-negative donation within 730 days of their positive donation. Residual risk was defined as the window period multiplied by incidence.

RESULTS: From 2009 to 2014, a total of 236 HIV-positive donors occurred in these regions for an overall prevalence of 8.3 per 100,000 donations. There were 56 incident donors over the 6-year period with incidence decreasing from 7.1 per 100,000 person-years (PYs) in the first two years (2009–2010) to 3.5 in the last two years (2013–2014). Residual risk decreased from 1 in 562,000 to 1 in 1,100,000. The most commonly reported risk factor behavior in male incident donors was men who have sex with men; females expressed no predominant risk factor.

CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence and incidence among blood donors in the southeast are higher than other US regions, consistent with general public health surveillance. However, the overall residual risk estimates are low at less than 1 per million. Ongoing monitoring of the blood supply along with educational efforts to provide infected individuals with alternatives to donation remain important initiatives.

Reference:

Crowder, L.A., Steele, W.R., Notari IV, E.P., Hopkins, C.K., Lima, J.L.O., Foster, G.A., Townsend, R.L., Krysztof, D.E., Dodd, R.Y. and Stramer, S.L. (2016) Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus infection in blood donors in the Southeastern United States. Transfusion. November 2nd. [epub ahead of print].

DOI: 10.1111/trf.13891

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