What are the non-intravenous routes for Benzodiazepines in epilepsy?

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This is a narrative review of data about delivery methods for benzodiazepines alternative to the intravenous and oral routes for the acute treatment of seizures” Mula (2016).

Abstract:

Benzodiazepines represent the first-line treatment for the acute management of epileptic seizures and status epilepticus. The emergency use of benzodiazepines must be timely, and because most seizures occur outside of the hospital environment, there is a significant need for delivery methods that are easy for nonclinical caregivers to use and administer quickly and safely. In addition, the ideal route of administration should be reliable in terms of absorption. Rectal diazepam is the only licensed formulation in the USA, whereas rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam are currently licensed in the EU. However, the sometimes unpredictable absorption with rectal and buccal administration means they are not ideal routes.

Several alternative routes are currently being explored. This is a narrative review of data about delivery methods for benzodiazepines alternative to the intravenous and oral routes for the acute treatment of seizures. Unconventional delivery options such as direct delivery to the central nervous system or inhalers are reported. Data show that intranasal diazepam or midazolam and the intramuscular auto-injector for midazolam are as effective as rectal or intravenous diazepam. Head-to-head comparisons with buccal midazolam are urgently needed. In addition, the majority of trials focused on children and adolescents, and further trials in adults are warranted.

Reference:

Mula, M. (2016) New Non-Intravenous Routes for Benzodiazepines in Epilepsy: A Clinician Perspective. CNS Drugs. December 9th. [Epub ahead of print].

DOI: 10.1007/s40263-016-0398-4

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