Ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation in critically-ill pediatric patients

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To describe the characteristics of ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation in critically-ill pediatric patients” López Álvarez et al (2018).

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Central vascular cannulation in children is a highly complex technique and poses many difficulties. Vascular ultrasound can make this procedure easier.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation in critically-ill pediatric patients.

POPULATION AND METHODS: Outcome measures prospectively recorded were vessels most frequently cannulated, their localization, the measurement of their diameter/depth, the success rate and complications developed, among others.

RESULTS: One hundred and twenty four vascular punctures were performed in 86 pediatric patients. Vascular accesses were the femoral vein (39.7%), followed by the femoral artery (27.2%) and the internal jugular vein (14.7%). Femoral vessels were localized at a depth of 0.75 ± 0.25 mm, with a mean diameter of 0.31 ± 0.16 mm. The depth of jugular vein vessels was smaller (0.64 ± 0.24 mm) and their overall diameter, larger (0.44 ± 0.19 mm). The mean number of attempts in ultrasound-guided cannulations was 2.2 ± 1.3. The success rate was 79% and was associated to a larger vessel diameter (0.39 ± 0.20 mm vs. 0.28 ± 0.13 mm, p= 0.01) and a lower number of attempts (1.90 ± 1.16 vs. 3.45 ± 1.77, p= 0.001). Complications were accidental puncture of another vessel (5.3%) and hematoma formation during puncture (2.3%).

CONCLUSIONS: In the pediatric patients studied, ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation allowed vessel visualization and measurement of their depth and diameter; the success rate was high and it was associated to a low complication rate.

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Reference:

López Álvarez, J.M., Pérez Quevedo, O., Ramírez Lorenzo, T., Limiñana Cañal, J.M. and Loro Ferrer, J.F. (2018) Ultrasound-guided vascular cannulation. Experience in critically-ill pediatric patients. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría. 116(3), p.204-209. .

doi: 10.5546/aap.2018.eng.204.

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