Intravenous literature: Clark, C.T. (2009) Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury: Clinical Features and Diagnostic Dilemmas. Journal of Infusion Nursing. 32(3), p.132-136.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is recognized as the number-one cause of transfusion-associated death in the United States. Although TRALI was not designated as the number-one cause until 2004, respiratory-related symptoms associated with blood transfusion have been reported for decades. More recently, our understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical significance of TRALI has advanced significantly, and great efforts are being implemented for patient safety. This article reviews the background, history, definitions, clinical features, and pathophysiology of TRALI. It also discusses some of the difficulties in diagnosing TRALI, compares some of the important components in the differential diagnosis, and describes some of the efforts being implemented for patient safety.