The prevalence of peripheral intravenous cannulae and pattern of use

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To determine the prevalence and pattern of use of peripheral intravenous cannula (PIVC) in hospital wards” Wong et al (2017).

Abstract:

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to determine the prevalence and pattern of use of peripheral intravenous cannula (PIVC) in hospital wards.

BACKGROUND: PIVC are commonly used in acute health care to directly access the bloodstream for the administration of medications, intravenous fluids (IVF) and blood products. PIVC are associated with multiple adverse events including hospital acquired bloodstream infection, thrombophlebitis, and pain/discomfort. Administration of IVF is associated with impaired mobility and nocturia which may increase falls risk in the elderly.

DESIGN: observational, point prevalence study.

METHODS: Three private hospitals comprising a total of 1230 beds participated in the study. Nurses recorded the presence of a PIVC, duration of insertion, state of the dressing, and whether the PIVC was accessed in the previous 24 hours and for what purpose. Nurses were also asked if they would replace the PIVC should it fail.

RESULTS: Approximately one quarter of patients had a PIVC, the majority of which had been present for less than 24 hours. The major use of the PIVC was antibiotic administration. Administration of IVF occurred in the presence of normal oral fluid intake. Nurses would not replace one third of PIVC in the event of failure. A majority of patients were at increased falls risk and one third of these were receiving IVF.

CONCLUSIONS: There is room for improvement in the utilisation of PIVC, particularly in removal and associated use of IVF. Alternative strategies for medication administration and timely switch to the oral route may reduce the risks associated with IVF.

Reference:

Wong, K., Cooper, A., Brown, J., Boyd, L. and Levinson, M. (2017) The prevalence of peripheral intravenous cannulae and pattern of use: A point prevalence in a private hospital setting. Journal of Clinical Nursing. July 12th. [epub ahead of print].

doi: 10.1111/jocn.13961.

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