This clinical report details the results of endovascular treatment of symptomatic superior vena cava syndrome due to central vein stenosis or obstruction (CVSO) by stent angioplasty in patients with dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease” Massara et al (2017).
This clinical report details the results of endovascular treatment of symptomatic superior vena cava syndrome due to central vein stenosis or obstruction (CVSO) by stent angioplasty in patients with dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease. A 3-year retrospective review of two institutional registries identified 25 chronic hemodialysis patients (17 men, 8 women) affected by CVSO who received endovascular treatment.
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The majority of the patients (n = 19) presented with symptomatic arm, breast, and facial swelling; and 6 patients presented with dialysis-access dysfunction and venous-line hypertension. The etiology of CVSO was before central venous catheter in all but 2 patients. Venography showed 19 cases of stenosis (4 stenoses of superior vena cava, 3 brachiocephalic, 10 subclavian, and 2 axillary veins) and 6 occlusions of the superior vena cava. After percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and primary stent angioplasty, there was an immediate regression of symptoms and arteriovenous fistula preservation in 21 cases; 4 patients received a new arteriovenous fistula after interventional treatment. No procedural major complications or patient deaths occurred. During the follow-up period, we recorded a primary patency rate of 95%, 80%, and 70%, respectively, at 6, 12, and 18 months; and a secondary patency rate of 100%, 95%, and 90%, respectively, at 6, 12, and 18 months. In conclusion, endovascular treatment with primary stenting has proven to be a durable treatment option for hemodialysis patients with CVSO, and this treatment should be considered before dialysis access placement in patients with catheter-induced central vein obstruction.
Massara, M., De Caridi, G., Alberti, A., Volpe, P. and Spinelli, F. (2017) Symptomatic superior vena cava syndrome in hemodialysis patients: mid-term results of primary stenting. Seminars in Vascular Surgery. 29(4), p.186-191.
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