Kayashima, K. (2015) Factors affecting survival in pediatric cardiac tamponade caused by central venous catheters. Journal of Anesthesia. July 10th. [epub ahead of print].
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Pediatric central venous catheter (CVC) placement is useful but associated with complications such as cardiac tamponade. We aimed to identify risk factors for death in cardiac tamponade. Published articles on pediatric CVC-associated cardiac tamponade were obtained by searching PubMed and Google and retrospectively reviewed to analyze risk factors for death. Factors examined for their effect on mortality risk included patient age, weight, CVC size, days from CVC insertion to tamponade occurrence, substances administered, insertion site, treatment, CVC material, and initial CVC tip position. Of 110 patients reported in 62 articles, 69 survived and 41 died. Among survivors, 55 of 69 patients were treated; among deaths, only 7 of 38 (OR 537.9, 95 % CI 29.3-9,877, p < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis in 44 cases showed that treatment (p < 0.0001) and initial CVC tip position (p = 0.020) were independent predictive factors related to improved cardiac tamponade survival. Past studies have mainly discussed how to avoid pediatric cardiac tamponade; by contrast, the present study focused on how to avoid deaths. The findings of this review suggest that cardiac tamponade survival is better when tamponade is detected early and treated promptly and might be affected by initial CVC tip position.
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