Rivaroxaban showed promise in treating CVC-UEDVT in cancer patients, resulting in preserved line function” Davies et al (2017).
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of thrombosis, particularly those with central venous catheter (CVC) placement, which may predispose to the development of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT). Standard treatment includes low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or LMWH bridged to warfarin. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become standard of care for uncomplicated venous thromboembolism (VTE), but research in patients with cancer is ongoing.
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OBJECTIVES: To assess rivaroxaban monotherapy in patients with cancer who develop UEDVT due to CVC for preservation of line function, and safety outcomes of VTE recurrence, bleeding risk and death.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients ≥18years of age with active malignancy and symptomatic proximal UEDVT with or without pulmonary embolism (PE), associated with a CVC, were eligible. Treatment included rivaroxaban 15mg oral twice daily for 3weeks, followed by 20mg oral daily for 9weeks. Patients were followed clinically for 12weeks to assess for line function, recurrent VTE and bleeding.
RESULTS: Seventy patients (47 women) were included, with mean age 54.1years. The most common malignancy was breast cancer (41%). Preservation of line function was 100% at 12weeks. The risk of recurrent VTE at 12weeks was 1.43%, with one episode of fatal PE. 9 patients (12.9%) experienced 11 total bleeding episodes.
CONCLUSIONS: Rivaroxaban showed promise in treating CVC-UEDVT in cancer patients, resulting in preserved line function. However, bleeding rates and a fatal pulmonary embolism on treatment are concerning safety outcomes necessitating further study before rivaroxaban can be recommended.
Davies, G.A., Lazo-Langner, A., Gandara, E., Rodger, M., Tagalakis, V., Louzada, M., Corpuz, R. and Kovacs, M.J. (2017) A prospective study of Rivaroxaban for central venous catheter associated upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in cancer patients (Catheter 2). Thrombosis Research. April 6th. [Epub ahead of print].
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