Peyton’s step 3 is the most crucial part in central line insertion training

Safety IV catheter


Krautter, M., Dittrich, R., Safi, A., Krautter, J., Maatouk, I., Moeltner, A., Herzog, W. and Nikendei, C. (2015) Peyton’s four-step approach: differential effects of single instructional steps on procedural and memory performance – a clarification study. Advances in Medical Education and Practice. 6, p.399-406. eCollection 2015.


BACKGROUND: Although Peyton’s four-step approach is a widely used method for skills-lab training in undergraduate medical education and has been shown to be more effective than standard instruction, it is unclear whether its superiority can be attributed to a specific single step.

PURPOSE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the differential learning outcomes of the separate steps of Peyton’s four-step approach.

METHODS: Volunteer medical students were randomly assigned to four different groups. Step-1 group received Peyton’s Step 1, Step-2 group received Peyton’s Steps 1 and 2, Step-3 group received Peyton’s Steps 1, 2, and 3, and Step-3mod group received Peyton’s Steps 1 and 2, followed by a repetition of Step 2. Following the training, the first independent performance of a central venous catheter (CVC) insertion using a manikin was video-recorded and scored by independent video assessors using binary checklists. The day after the training, memory performance during delayed recall was assessed with an incidental free recall test.

RESULTS: A total of 97 participants agreed to participate in the trial. There were no statistically significant group differences with regard to age, sex, completed education in a medical profession, completed medical clerkships, preliminary memory tests, or self-efficacy ratings. Regarding checklist ratings, Step-2 group showed a superior first independent performance of CVC placement compared to Step-1 group (P<0.001), and Step-3 group showed a superior performance to Step-2 group (P<0.009), while Step-2 group and Step-3mod group did not differ (P=0.055). The findings were similar in the incidental free recall test.

CONCLUSION: Our study identified Peyton’s Step 3 as being the most crucial part within Peyton’s four-step approach, contributing significantly more to learning success than the previous steps and reaching beyond the benefit of a mere repetition of skills demonstration.

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