Parenteral nutrition bags maximum duration of infusion policy

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“Recommendations effectively restrict the infusion duration of lipid-containing parenteral nutrition (PN) from a single bag, purportedly because it encourages growth of potential microbial contaminants more than lipid-free PN.” Austin et al (2014).

Reference:

Austin, P.D., Hand, K.S. and Elia, M. (2014) Factors Influencing Escherichia coli and Enterococcus durans Growth in Parenteral Nutrition With and Without Lipid Emulsion to Inform Maximum Duration of Infusion Policy Decisions. JPEN Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. June 25th. [epub ahead of print].

Abstract:

Background: Recommendations effectively restrict the infusion duration of lipid-containing parenteral nutrition (PN) from a single bag, purportedly because it encourages growth of potential microbial contaminants more than lipid-free PN. Since other variables, including osmolarity, may independently affect microbial growth, this study examined variables affecting growth of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus durans in PN infusates.

Materials and Methods: Growth of E coli and E durans was assessed in quadruplicate in 12 different PN infusates, with and without lipid, in varying glucose concentrations.

Results: Results are presented as mean log10 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL ± SEM at 48 hours. The log10cfu/mL of both E coli and E durans in PN increased considerably after adjustment for baseline log10cfu/mL and pH, from 1.093 to 2.241 (P < .001) and from 0.843 to 3.451 (P < .001) respectively. Growth of each microorganism was independently increased by lipid inclusion, or increasing the proportion of nonnitrogen energy from lipid, and reduced by raising the glucose concentration or energy density. Increasing the osmolarity of lipid-PN with glucose or sodium chloride reduced growth but only significantly for sodium chloride (E coli, P = .025; E durans, P = .045). Induced changes in pH affected the growth of the 2 organisms differently.

Conclusion: The presence of lipid and an increasing proportion of energy from lipid in PN favored the growth of E coli and E durans. Osmolarity changes and the nutrient type causing these changes independently affect the growth of these microbes. Each effect needs to be considered when establishing guidelines based on the growth of potential contaminants in different types of PN.

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