Tunnelled central venous access devices (CVADs) are defined as any intravenous multipurpose catheters placed within the central veins for use in haemodialysis and administration of blood products or chemotherapy in oncology and haematological conditions. Frequent complications include thrombosis and catheter-related infection, which may lead to significant adverse patient outcomes. Once thrombosis is suspected correction should be attempted empirically with thrombolytic agents. Commonly available thrombolytic agents in the UK include urokinase (Syner-Kinase) and alteplase (Cathflo). It is well recognised that urokinase usage differs widely and concerns were raised by clinicians about the variation of dose regimens nationally. The objective of the CVAD Focus Group was to address this issue and offer guidance in the management of suspected thrombosis of CVAD with urokinase using two algorithms for renal and non-renal dysfunctional CVAD and to audit prospectively the outcomes of intervention.
Kumwenda, M., Dougherty, L., Spooner, H., Jackson, V., Mitra, S. and Inston, N. (2018) Managing dysfunctional central venous access devices: a practical approach to urokinase thrombolysis. British Journal of Nursing. 27(2), p.S18–S26. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2018.27.2.S4.