Indications and outcomes associated with intraosseous access

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The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine indications and outcomes associated with IO use at a Level 1 trauma center (January 2008-May 2015)” Johnson et al (2016).

Abstract:

Intraosseous (IO) needle placement is an alternative for patients with difficult venous access. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine indications and outcomes associated with IO use at a Level 1 trauma center (January 2008-May 2015).

Data points included demographics, time to insertion, intravenous (IV) access points, indications, infusions, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and mortality. Of 68 patients with IO insertion analyzed (63.2% blunt trauma, 29.4% penetrating trauma, and 7.4% medical), 56 per cent were hypotensive on arrival and 38.2 per cent asystolic. The most common indications for IO infusion were difficult IV access (69%) and rapid sequence intubation (20.6%). The median time to IO access was three minutes. IV access was gained after IO in 72.1 per cent of patients. Through IO access, 30.9 per cent patients received crystalloid, 29.4 per cent received Advanced Care Life Support (ACLS) medications, 25 per cent rapid sequence intubation medications, 20.6 per cent blood products, and 2.9 per cent seizure medications. Overall, 80.9 per cent were intubated in the Emergency Department (ED), 26.5 per cent had ED thoracotomy, and 20.6 per cent had a laparotomy. Median crystalloid infused through IO was 180 cc in pediatric patients and 1 L in adults, respectively. Extravasation, the most common complication, was experienced by 7.4 per cent of patients. Inhospital mortality was 72.9 per cent. IO access should be considered when there is a need for rapid intervention requiring vascular access.

Reference:

Johnson, M., Inaba, K., Byerly, S., Falsgraf, E., Lam, L., Benjamin, E., Strumwasser, A., David, J.S. and Demetriades, D. (2016) Intraosseous Infusion as a Bridge to Definitive Access. The American Surgeon. 82(10), p.876-880.

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