How to complete point prevalence monitoring of HCAIs

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In areas with limited personnel and resources, regular investigation of the point prevalence of HCAIs can be performed in lieu of comprehensive monitoring to elucidate risk factors and disease burdens of HCAIs” Liu et al (2016).

Abstract:

Background: Point-prevalence studies can identify priorities for infection control.

Aim: In May 2014, the Beijing Nosocomial Infection Control and Quality Improvement Centre organized a point-prevalence survey in 124 acute care hospitals in Beijing province. By analysing the survey results and factors affecting the point prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in secondary and tertiary acute care hospitals in a certain area of China, this study provides evidence and reference to monitor HCAIs in a wide variety of hospitals.

Methods: An epidemiological cross-sectional survey conducted by infection control practitioners was used to assess the point-prevalence rate of HCAIs by reviewing cases and performing bedside surveys.

Findings: In total, 124 hospitals and 61,990 patients were surveyed, and 1389 (2.2%) HCAIs were diagnosed in 1294 (2.1%) patients. Respiratory tract infections were the most common HCAIs (54.4%, 51.7–56.9%), followed by urinary tract infections (15.0%, 13.2–16.9%), gastrointestinal tract infections (7.7%, 6.3–9.1%), surgical site infections (6.3%, 5.1–7.6%) and bloodstream infections (5.5%, 4.3–6.8%). In this survey, the top three pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. Rates of central vein catheter insertion, urethral catheterization and mechanical ventilation were 9.9%, 12.4% and 3.8%, respectively. Overall, 23.7% of the patients underwent surgery on or before the date of the survey. HCAIs were present in 14.5% of intensive care unit patients, 2.3% of medical patients and 2% of surgical patients. Diarrhoea was found in 0.8% of the assessed cases; however, tests for Clostridium difficile are not routinely available in China.

Conclusion: In areas with limited personnel and resources, regular investigation of the point prevalence of HCAIs can be performed in lieu of comprehensive monitoring to elucidate risk factors and disease burdens of HCAIs.

Reference:

Liu, J.Y., Wu, Y.H., Cai, M. and Zhou, C.L. (2016) Point-prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections in Beijing, China: a survey and analysis in 2014. The Journal of Infection Prevention. April 12th. [epub ahead of print].

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2016.03.019

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