Compartment syndrome is a rare but devastating condition that can result in permanent neuromuscular or soft tissue injuries. Extravasation injuries, among the iatrogenic causes of compartment syndrome, occur under a wide variety of circumstances in the inpatient setting. Total parenteral nutrition via a peripheral route is an effective alternative for the management of critically ill children who do not obtain adequate nutrition via the oral route.
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However, there is an inherent risk of extravasation, which can cause compartment syndrome, especially when detected at a later stage. Herein, we report a rare case of compartment syndrome and skin necrosis due to extravasation, requiring emergency fasciotomy and skin graft in a 7-month-old boy who was treated with peripheral parenteral nutrition via a pressurized infusion pump. Although we cannot estimate the exact time at which extravasation occurred, the extent and degree of the wound suggest that the ischemic insult was prolonged, lasting for several hours. Pediatric clinicians and medical teams should carefully examine the site of insertion of the intravenous catheter, especially in patients receiving parenteral nutrition via a peripheral intravenous catheter with a pressurized infusion pump.
Park, H.J., Kim, K.H., Lee, H.J., Jeong, E.C., Kim, K.W. and Suh, D.I. (2015) Compartment syndrome due to extravasation of peripheral parenteral nutrition: extravasation injury of parenteral nutrition. Korean Journal of Pediatrics. 58(11), p.454-8.
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