Central venous access device complications in children

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Reduction of catheter-related bloodstream infections is realized with use of ethanol locks, single lumens when appropriate, and prudent adherence to insertion and maintenance bundles” Duesing et al (2016).

Abstract:

Central venous catheters are often necessary in the pediatric population. Access may be challenging, and each vessel presents its own unique set of risks and complications. Central venous catheterization is useful for hemodynamic monitoring, rapid fluid infusion, and administration of hyperosmolar medications, including vasopressors, antibiotics, chemotherapy, and parenteral nutrition.

Recent advances have improved the catheters used as well as techniques for insertion. A serious complication of central access is infection, which is associated with morbidity, mortality, and significant financial costs. Reduction of catheter-related bloodstream infections is realized with use of ethanol locks, single lumens when appropriate, and prudent adherence to insertion and maintenance bundles. Ultrasound guidance used for central venous catheter placement improves accuracy of placement, reducing time and unsuccessful insertion and complication rates. Patients with central venous catheters are best served by multidisciplinary team involvement.

Reference:

Duesing, L.A., Fawley, J.A. and Wagner, A.J. (2016) Central Venous Access in the Pediatric Population With Emphasis on Complications and Prevention Strategies. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. March 31st. [Epub ahead of print].

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