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"Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVC) are a good alternative in case that an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannot be made, awaiting maturation or during unscheduled hemodialysis" Chouhani et al (2022).

Tunneled dialysis catheter

Abstract:

Objective: Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVC) are a good alternative in case that an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannot be made, awaiting maturation or during unscheduled hemodialysis. We report the experience in placing these catheters by nephrologists and establish the various indications and complications in hemodialysis patients. We also relate the lifespan of tunneled catheters in our series.

Materials and methods: Our study is a retrospective, descriptive and analytical, study carried out in nephrology department, including all the patients who benefited from a TCVC between June 2018 to June 2020. We included a total of 138 patients, Glomerular nephropathy was the main cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) (34.6%). In total, 116 patients previously had an AVF. The average duration of use of TCVC was 140.62 days±106.104 [10-548 days]. The most frequent indication for placement of the tunneled catheter was pending for AVF to be made. We identified 64 (46%) cases who presented with complications per procedure (mechanical and hemorrhagic), the delayed complications were present in 12.3% of patients with 56.5% who presented with infectious complications in our series, and 43.5% of them experienced thrombotic complications. Two deaths in our series were related to a septic shock and a hemothorax. Mechanical and thrombotic complications occurred more frequently in women (P=0.032, P=0.018, respectively). For bleeding complications, the significant risk factor during our study was thrombocytopenia (P=0.027). Infectious complications, were linked to seniority in hemodialysis (P=0.014). Thrombotic complications were related to history of heart disease and anemia<8g/dL (P=0.01; P=0.043, respectively).

Conclusion: The first indication of a CVC was a pending for AVF. Even if the per procedure complications were more frequent, they were benign in most cases. The delayed complications were mostly infectious and thrombotic. The lifespan of TCVC in our series was short since the main indication of the removal was the maturation of an AVF.


Reference:

Chouhani BA, Kabbali N, Chiba Bennani S, El Bardai G, Sqalli Houssaini T. Tunneled catheters in hemodialysis: Indications and complications. J Med Vasc. 2022 Apr;47(2):87-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jdmv.2022.04.007. Epub 2022 May 24. PMID: 35691668.