Intravenous literature: Ganter-Ritz, V., Speroni, K. and Atherton, M. (2012) A Randomized Double-Blind Study Comparing Intradermal Anesthetic Tolerability, Efficacy, and Cost-Effectiveness of Lidocaine, Buffered Lidocaine, and Bacteriostatic Normal Saline for Peripheral Intravenous Insertion. Journal of Infusion Nursing. 35(2), p.93-99.
In this double-blind study, 256 surgical patients meeting eligibility criteria were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to 1 of the 3 intradermal injection groups prior to intravenous (IV) line insertion (Group 1 = 1% lidocaine, Group 2 = 1% buffered lidocaine, and Group 3 = bacteriostatic normal saline with a benzyl alcohol preservative). The most tolerable solution, as measured by the average level of pain from an intradermal insertion, was buffered lidocaine (Group 2). The most efficacious, as measured by average level of pain at IV cannulation, were Groups 1 and 2. Group 3 was the most cost-effective.