Register for citation alerts
"Institutions must now work to minimize use of IV crystalloids to hemorrhaging trauma patients and a simple solution of using smaller IV fluid bags was shown to improve adherence to this practice" Hall et al (2021).

Reducing IV crystalloid in resuscitation

Abstract:

Introduction: Administering large volumes of crystalloids to trauma patients has been shown to exacerbate metabolic complications of hemorrhage including dilutional coagulopathy and worsening acidosis The aim of this study was to evaluate crystalloid administration volumes in trauma patients after replacing 1 L IV containers with 500 mL IV containers in the emergency department trauma resuscitation bay.

Materials and methods: This was a single-center, IRB-approved, retrospective cohort evaluation of adult trauma patients conducted at an 864-bed community tertiary referral center located in the southeastern United States. Patterns of crystalloid administration were examined before and after the trauma resuscitation bay began to exclusively stock 500 mL IV containers. The primary outcome was mean total crystalloid volume infused from time of injury to hospital admission. Secondary outcomes included mean total crystalloid volume infused prior to administration of blood products, proportion of patients who received less than 2 L total of crystalloids, time to initiation of blood products, and mortality in both the emergency department and in-hospital.

Results: Patient characteristics were largely similar between both groups including age, mechanism of injury, and Injury Severity Score. For the primary outcome, the mean total crystalloid volume infused from time of injury to hospital administration, patients in the 500 mL IV fluid container group were administered 555 mL less crystalloid when compared to the 1 L IV fluid container group, 1048 mL vs 1603 mL (p < 0.01; 95% CI 406 mL - 704 mL), respectively. After conversion to the 500 mL IV container bags, there was a 27.5% increase in the proportion of patients receiving less than 2 L of crystalloid, 90.5% vs 63.0% in the 500 mL IV fluid container and 1 L IV fluid container groups, respectively (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Due to reduced mortality, expanding literature and guidelines clearly support minimizing IV crystalloid resuscitation. Institutions must now work to minimize use of IV crystalloids to hemorrhaging trauma patients and a simple solution of using smaller IV fluid bags was shown to improve adherence to this practice.

Reference:

Hall AB, Glas-Boben J, Santos JL, Wilson K, Morata L, Wall W. Impact of the utilization of 500 mL IV bags on crystalloid resuscitation volumes administered to trauma patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2021 Oct 27;51:214-217. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.10.038. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34775194.