Background & aims: There has been no clear evidence regarding the appropriate method of flushing catheters and totally implantable venous access devices (TIVADs) after lipid emulsion (LE) administration. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify appropriate methods of flushing to minimize residual LE when using TIVADs to ensure the safety of long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and home parenteral nutrition (HPN).
Methods: A soybean oil LE containing indocyanine green (ICG) was administered from the injection site of the primary infusion set for flowing TPN, and LE dynamics were evaluated by a fluorescence imaging system. TIVADs were connected to the end of the infusion sets. After LE administration, the tubes and chambers were flushed from the injection site using saline at various speeds (20, 40, 60 mL/min), with and without pulsation. The washout effect of TPN solution after LE administration followed by flushing was examined, as was the washout effect of size differences in the infusion sets.
Results: When the LE was flushed with 20 mL of saline immediately after administering the LE using a standard infusion set (inner diameter 2.5 mm), the LE still remained in the tubes and chambers under any flushing condition. Flushing the LE from the injection site with 10 mL of saline and then flowing >240 mL of TPN solution were effective for minimizing residual LE inside the tubes and chambers. When using an infusion set with a small inner diameter (1.0 mm), the LE inside the tubes and chambers was almost discharged with ≥20 mL of saline immediately after administering the LE. In all settings, flushing with/without pulsation did not affect LE washout efficacy.
Conclusions: Flushing immediately with saline ≥10 mL and then flowing >240 mL of primary PN solution after soybean oil LE administration using the standard infusion set or flushing with 20 mL saline immediately after administering the soybean oil LE using the infusion set with a small inner diameter are effective for minimizing the residual LE in the catheter and TIVAD, ensuring the safety of long-term TPN and HPN.
Okamura N, Yamato T, Yamaoka I, Doi K, Koyama Y. How to perform appropriate flushing after lipid emulsion administration using totally implantable venous access devices in long-term total parenteral nutrition and home parenteral nutrition. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Feb;41:287-292. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.11.019. Epub 2020 Dec 18. PMID: 33487278.