Management and complications associated with arterial catheters

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Peripheral arterial catheters (PAC) are used for haemodynamic monitoring and blood sampling in paediatric critical care. Limited data are available regarding PAC insertion and management practices, and how they relate to device function and failure” Schults et al (2019).

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial catheters (PAC) are used for haemodynamic monitoring and blood sampling in paediatric critical care. Limited data are available regarding PAC insertion and management practices, and how they relate to device function and failure. This information is necessary to inform future interventional research.

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to describe PAC insertion and management practices, and associated complications. Secondary objectives were to determine patient and clinical characteristics associated with risk of PAC successful insertion and failure.

METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted in the anaesthetic department and paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary paediatric facility. Data were collected on PAC insertion, PAC management and PAC removal. Standard incidence and prevalence were calculated per 1,000 device days. Risk factors for multiple insertions and PAC failure were identified using Cox regression.

RESULTS: A total of 100 catheters in 89 children were examined capturing 472 device days. PACs were primarily inserted for blood sampling (78%) in the radial artery (78%) using ultrasound guidance (67%), with 31% inserted on first attempt. Heparin saline solution was used in 82% of devices. Median catheter dwell was 50.6 hours (IQR 24.0 – 158.0), with PAC failure occurring in 19 devices (20%), at a rate of 40.2 per 1000 catheter days (95% CI 25.7 – 63.1). Arm board immobilisation (HR 2.9; 95% CI 1.02-8.02; p = 0.05), higher PIM3 score (HR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.09; p < 0.01) was associated with an increased the risk of PAC failure, and non-2% chlorhexidine antisepsis was associated with a decrease in PAC failure (HR 0.32; 95% CI 0.11-0.96; p = 0.04), in univariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: PAC insertion is challenging, and failure is common. Prospective clinical trial data is needed to identify high risk patient groups and to develop interventions which optimise practices, thereby reducing failure.

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Reference:

Schults, J.A., Long, D., Pearson, K., Takashima, M., Baveas, T., Schlapbach, L.J., Macfarlane, F. and Ullman, A.J. (2019) Insertion, management, and complications associated with arterial catheters in paediatric intensive care: A clinical audit. Australian Critical Care. June 11th. doi: 10.1016/j.aucc.2019.05.003. .

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