The purpose of this prospective ultrasound-based pilot study was to identify the most suitable tibial puncture site for intraosseous (IO) access in term and preterm neonates, describe tibial dimensions at this site, and provide anatomical landmarks for rapid localization. We measured the tibial dimensions and distances to anatomical landmarks at puncture sites A (proximal: 10 mm distal to the tibial tuberosity; distal: 10 mm proximal to the malleolus medialis) and B (chosen by palpation of the pediatrician), in 40 newborns in four weight groups (< 1000 g; 1000-2000 g, 2000-3000 g, and 3000-4000 g). Sites were rejected if they fell short of the assumed safety distance to the tibial growth plate of 10 mm. If both A and B were rejected, puncture site C was determined sonographically at the maximum tibial diameter while maintaining the safety distance. Puncture site A violated the safety distance in 53% and 85% (proximally and distally, respectively) and puncture site B in 38% and 33%. In newborns weighing 3000-4000 g, at median (IQR), the most suitable puncture site at the proximal tibia was 13.0 mm (12.0-15.8) distal to the tuberosity and 6.0 mm (4.0-8.0) medial to the anterior rim of the tibia. The median (IQR) diameters at this site were 8.3 mm (7.9-9.1) (transverse) and 9.2 mm (8.9-9.8) (anterior-posterior). The diameters increased significantly with increasing weight. Conclusion: This study adds concise, practical information on the implementation of IO access in neonatal patients: the tibial dimensions in newborns in four different weight groups and initial data on anatomical landmarks to easily locate the IO puncture site. The results may help implement IO access in newborns more safely.
What is Known:
What is New:
Schwindt EM, Häcker T, Stockenhuber R, Patsch JM, Mehany SN, Berger A, Schwindt JC. Finding the most suitable puncture site for intraosseous access in term and preterm neonates: an ultrasound-based anatomical pilot study. Eur J Pediatr. 2023 Apr 19. doi: 10.1007/s00431-023-04972-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37074459.