3D printed intraosseous training model
Introduction: Current bone models used for pediatric intraosseous (IO) placement training are expensive or lack anatomic and/or functional fidelity. This technical report describes the development and validation of a 3-dimensional printed (3DP) tibia from a pediatric lower extremity computed tomography scan for IO procedural training.
Methods: Multiple 3DP tibia models were printed using a dual-extrusion fused-filament fabrication printer. Models underwent iterative optimization until 2 final models, one of polypropylene (3DP clear) and the other of polylactic acid/polypropylene (3DP white), were selected. Using an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design, a novel IO bone model assessment tool was generated. Physicians then used the assessment tool to evaluate and compare common IO bone models to the novel 3DP models during IO needle insertion.
Results: Thirty physicians evaluated the provided pediatric IO bone models. Compared with a chicken bone as a reference, the 3DP white bone had statistically significantly higher mean scores of anatomy, heft, sense of being anchored in the bone, quality of bone resistance, and “give” when interfaced with an IO needle. Twenty-two of the 30 participants ranked the 3DP white bone as either 1st or 2nd in terms of ranked preference of pediatric IO bone model. A 3DP white bone costs $1.10 to make.
Conclusions: The 3DP IO tibia models created from real-life computed tomography images have high degrees of anatomic and functional realism. These IO training models are easily replicable, highly appraised, and can be printed at a fraction of the cost of commercially available plastic models.
Manshadi K, Chang TP, Schmidt A, Lau J, Rake A, Pham P, Illingworth K, Song JL. Validation of a 3-Dimensional-Printed Infant Tibia for Intraosseous Needle Insertion Training. Simul Healthc. 2022 Sep 23. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000689. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36194860.