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"The study depicted high prevalence of phlebitis factored in by poor vein assessment and increase in indwelling time" Nikhila et al (2022).

Infusion phlebitis patient questionnaire


Background: Medicines delivered directly to systemic circulation have saved many lives from life-threatening conditions, but also can impart undesirable effects.

Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was performed for 10 months in the tertiary care hospital to identify and evaluate cannula induced phlebitis in our study population. The data collection form retrieved demographic details, diseases and cannulation particulars of each patient. Moreover, a patient feedback questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha=0.70) retrieved their concerns toward cannulation.

Results: Phlebitis was identified in 96 patients out of 146 subjects enrolled in the study; 52% had the first sign of phlebitis. Female patients were more prone, and the complication occurred irrespective of age (p>0.05). On the other hand, those on IV cefoperazone-sulbactam (n=13, 13.5%) followed by amoxicillin clavulanic acid (n=6, 6%) had significant cannulation complication (p<0.01). The cannula indwells time (p=0.001) and vein assessment (p=0.001) were statistically associated with incidence of phlebitis. Half of our samples had pain lasting about five minutes (χ2=9.2, p<0.05). Nevertheless, limited patients (n = 35, 36.5%) were prescribed topical Heparin Benzyl Nitrate, and none preferred to self-medicate nor opted for other home remedies.

Conclusions: The study depicted high prevalence of phlebitis factored in by poor vein assessment and increase in indwelling time. We recommend proper awareness with on-site skill improvement program for health professionals on administration techniques and monitoring principles in order to lower cannulation related complications.


Nikhila T, Mohan PL, Mohammed Salim K, Aravind RS. Intravenous cannula induced phlebitis in a tertiary care referral hospital: A prospective observational study with implication from patient’s feedback system. J Healthc Qual Res. 2022 Jun 10:S2603-6479(22)00044-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jhqr.2022.04.003. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35697599.