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"Placement of ports via the internal jugular vein under ultrasound and fluoroscopy guidance is a safe procedure, with low rates of early and late complications" Kartsouni et al (2022).
Implantable port complications in oncology patients

Abstract:

Introduction: In this retrospective study, the safety and complication rates of port implantations via the internal jugular vein under ultrasound and fluoroscopy guidance in adult oncology patients were analyzed.

Material and methods: Eight hundred seven ports implanted in 799 adult oncology patients at a tertiary Oncology-Anticancer Hospital during a 36-month period from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Data acquisition was obtained until December 31, 2020. All procedures were performed by two specialized interventional radiologists under ultrasound and fluoroscopy guidance. The vein access was via the internal jugular vein. Catheter days (the total number of days of maintenance of the port by all of the patients until removal, death, or December 31, 2020), technical success rates, and complication rates were evaluated based on the interventional radiological reports and patient medical records. Multivariate analysis regarding patients such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), marital status, educational level, cancer type, side of insertion, diameter of internal jugular vein, diabetes, anticoagulants/antiplatelets, purpose of implantation, and catheter material as to the risk of complications was conducted.

Results: A total of 369,329 catheter maintenance days were observed (457.7±345.0). The technical success rate was 99.9%, and a total of 85 (10.5%) complications occurred, of which 24 (28.2%) occurred early (<30 days) and the remaining 61 (71.8%) were late (>30 days) complications. Specifically, 28 (3.5%) were catheter-related thrombosis (CRT), 27 (3.4%) related to infection, 17 (2.1%) were mechanical complications (16 fibrin sheath formation and one catheter occlusion), six (0.7%) related to catheter migration, four (0.5%) related to incision healing problems, and the remaining three (0.4%) related to ischemic skin necrosis. Forty-seven (5.8%) ports were removed due to complications. On multivariate analysis, cancer type was found as a risk factor for the development of a complication. Additionally, there was an indication that hematologic malignancy is related to infection.

Conclusion: Placement of ports via the internal jugular vein under ultrasound and fluoroscopy guidance is a safe procedure, with low rates of early and late complications.

Reference:

Kartsouni V, Moschouris H, Bersimis F, Gkeneralis G, Gkeli M, Dodoura S, Chouchourelou A, Fezoulidis I, Kotsakis A, Rountas C. Complications of Totally Implantable Central Venous Catheters (Ports) Inserted via the Internal Jugular Vein Under Ultrasound and Fluoroscopy Guidance in Adult Oncology Patients: A Single-Center Experience. Cureus. 2022 Jul 30;14(7):e27485. doi: 10.7759/cureus.27485. PMID: 36060391; PMCID: PMC9421351.