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Central venous stenosis or occlusion is a common and vexing problem in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Typical presenting symptoms include arm swelling and prolonged bleeding after hemodialysis. Despite multiple treatment approaches, these stenoses tend to recur and progress over time. A thorough preprocedure evaluation, methodical procedural approach and awareness of potential complications are all essential to try to preserve vascular access and improve patients’ quality of life.

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Horikawa, M. and Quencer, K.B. (2017) Central Venous Interventions. Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 20(1), p.48-57.

doi: 10.1053/j.tvir.2016.11.006.

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