Successful central venous catheterization
Background: Ultrasound (US)-guided axillary vein (AV) catheterization has been considered as the preferred site of insertion to minimize catheter-related infections. Given its difficulty of realization, internal jugular vein (IJV) access remains, thus, the first choice of catheter insertion site. This descriptive study was aimed to assess the success and complication rates of in-plane short axis approach of IJV in the lower neck and the AV approach under US-guidance.
Methods: In a prospective randomized controlled open-label pilot trial, all patients requiring central venous catheterization (CVC) in intensive care unit or operating room were randomly assigned to low IJV or AV groups. The primary objective was to estimate the overall success rate of both approaches. The secondary objectives were immediate complication rates, procedure durations, success rate after the first puncture, late complication rates (i.e., thrombosis, catheter colonization, and catheter-related infections), and nurse satisfaction regarding insertion site dressings.
Results: One hundred and seventy-three out of two hundred and ten included patients were fully analyzed (90 and 83 in the IJV and AV approach groups, respectively). Overall success rates for IJV and AV sites were 96% (95% confidence interval (CI) [90-99]) and 89% (95% CI [81-94]) respectively. First puncture success rates were 90% and 80% respectively. The median overall procedure duration from US pre-procedural screening to guidewire insertion was 8 and 10 min in IJV and AV groups. Overall immediate complications rates for IJV and AV sites were 11.6% and 14.6%, respectively. Incidence of catheter colonization were 7.9% and 6.8% and catheter-related infection rate were 2.6% and 0%, respectively.
Conclusion: In this pilot study, US-guided low IJV and AV approaches are safe and efficient techniques for CVC insertion associated with high success and low complications rates. Duration for guidewire insertion seemed to be shorter in the short axis in-plane IJV approach. It provides the basis for a future randomized trial comparing these two approaches.
Fournil C, Boulet N, Bastide S, Louart B, Ambert A, Boutin C, Lefrant JY, Muller L, Roger C. High success rates of ultrasound-guided distal internal jugular vein and axillary vein approaches for central venous catheterization: A randomized controlled open-label pilot trial. J Clin Ultrasound. 2022 Nov 17. doi: 10.1002/jcu.23383. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36385459.