CVC complications in AML patients
Purpose: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are widely used in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Complications associated with CVCs are frequently encountered and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Prospective studies investigating and comparing complications of different types of CVCs in AML patients and their effects on the quality of life are limited.
Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study and evaluated the complications associated with the use of CVCs in adult AML patients during induction chemotherapy and evaluated quality of life outcomes as reported by the patients during and after their hospitalization.
Results: Fifty newly diagnosed patients with AML (median age, 59 years) who received intensive induction chemotherapy were enrolled in the study. Twenty-nine patients (58%) had a peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) placed and 21 (42%) patients received a Hickmann tunneled central catheter (TCC). Three percent of cases developed catheter-related thrombosis in PICCs and no thrombosis in TCCs. Catheter-related bloodstream infection was diagnosed in 8% of patients. CVC occlusion occurred in 44 patients (88%). The total number of occlusion events was 128; 97% of patients with PICCs and 76% of patients with TCCs (p = 0.003). All patients reported that the use of CVC simplified their course of treatment. Most patients reported similar restrictions in activity associated with TCCs and PICCs.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that thrombosis and catheter-related bloodstream infections remain important complications of CVCs in AML patients. Occlusion rates were higher with the use of PICCs and the use of CVCs impacted the quality of life.
McKeown C, Ricciuti A, Agha M, Raptis A, Hou JZ, Farah R, Redner RL, Im A, Dorritie KA, Sehgal A, Rossetti J, Lontos K, Bovbjerg DH, Normolle D, Boyiadzis M. A prospective study of the use of central venous catheters in patients newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia treated with induction chemotherapy. Support Care Cancer. 2021 Sep 25. doi: 10.1007/s00520-021-06339-x. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34562168.