Background: The current research focused on studying the pattern of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) with femoral central access versus internal jugular access in patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU).
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Emergency Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, between March 4, 2022, and August 4, 2022. All individuals who presented to the ICU who needed a central venous catheter (CVC) for more than 48 hours were included. Catheter insertion was not permitted if the patient had a history of dermatitis or burns at the site of insertion or if the hemodialysis procedure necessitated the insertion of the catheter into a blood vessel. Three groups of patients were created: group A patients had been diagnosed with CRBSI; group B patients had catheter colonization (CC); and group C did not have CRBSI or CC. Standard microbiological methods were used to identify all of the bacteria collected from the cultures. All data was documented in a predefined pro forma.
Results: Overall, 20 (12.12%) patients had positive CRBSI, 68 (41.5%) had CC, and the remaining 46.3% of cultures were negative. Elderly populations were more prone to acquiring CRBSI showing a significant correlation between older age and CRBSI (p < 0.0001). CC was significantly associated with a longer duration of ICU stay, i.e., 30.3 ± 3.7 (p = 0.003). The absence of both CRBSI and CC was significantly associated with a lower duration of catheterization (11 ± 8.5 days in group C versus 22.1 ± 6.9 and 18.7 ± 7 days in groups A and B, respectively; p < 0.0001). Our study revealed a higher risk of CRBSI when the femoral access was compared to the internal jugular access (58.3% vs. 41.7%; p = 0.0008). The study did not find any significant association of CC with femoral or internal jugular access. Furthermore, a significantly higher rate of negative cultures was reported in patients with internal jugular access as compared to femoral vein access (85.8% vs. 14.2%; p = 0.007).
Conclusion: The need for routinely monitoring and observing the microbiological spectrum in patients receiving care in intensive care units is highlighted by the current investigation. The patients with internal jugular vein access had a decreased incidence of CRBSI and CC, while those with femoral access experienced CRBSI more frequently. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated germs, and both were resistant to various drugs that are used today. It is essential to regularly monitor the epidemiology of CRBSI in order to adopt preventative measures for infection prevention and control, such as staff education, strict hygiene standards, and a higher nurse-to-patient ratio.Reference:
Hafeez SB, Ahmed A, Akhtar A, Ishtiaq W, Javed NUS, Abbas K, Khan M, Zafar H, Jawed A. Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection With Femoral Central Access Versus Internal Jugular Access in Patients Admitting to Medical Intensive Care Unit. Cureus. 2022 Sep 21;14(9):e29416. doi: 10.7759/cureus.29416. PMID: 36304372; PMCID: PMC9586494.