Background: Despite tremendous efforts to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections, they still remain life-threatening complications among hospitalized patients with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria and other risk factors, including patient comorbidities, complicate patient management.
Methods: A single-center retrospective observational study was conducted at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Hospitalized patients with confirmed central line-associated bloodstream infections between January 2015 and December 2020 were included. The primary objectives were to investigate the trends in antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the causative agents, coexisting comorbid conditions, and other risk factors associated with mortality.
Results: A total of 214 patients with confirmed central line-associated bloodstream infections were included (CLABSI). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 33.6%. The infection rates per 1000 central line days for medical, surgical, and pediatric intensive care units were 4.97, 2.99, and 4.56 per 1000 CL days, respectively. The overall microbiological trends showed a predominance of Gram-negative agents, a steady increase of fungal CLABSI up to 24.0% in 2020, and a high prevalence of multidrug resistance up to 47% of bacterial CLABSI. In addition, the study indicates a significant negative surviving correlation with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, chronic kidney disease, and the presence of ≥ 3 comorbidities (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The microbiological trends of the study population demonstrated a steady increase of CLABSI caused by Candida spp. with a predominance of Gram-negative pathogens. Stratifying the patients according to relevant mortality risk factors, including patient comorbidities, will help reduce CLABSI rates and improve patient outcomes.Reference:
Alwazzeh MJ, Alnimr A, Al Nassri SA, Alwarthan SM, Alhajri M, AlShehail BM, Almubarak M, Alghamdi NS, Wali HA. Microbiological trends and mortality risk factors of central line-associated bloodstream infections in an academic medical center 2015-2020. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2023 Nov 19;12(1):128. doi: 10.1186/s13756-023-01338-5. PMID: 37981696.