Upper extremity DVT clinical features and etiologies

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An endovenous device was involved in 92.5 % of cases of ULVT. The prevalence of symptomatic PE was low. Hematological malignancies, sepsis and neoplasia were the most common conditions present in patients with ULVT” Drouin et al (2018).

Abstract:

AIM: To describe the clinical features and etiologies of upper limb venous thrombosis (ULVT).

METHODS: All patients with a clinically suspected ULVT, were included retrospectively from January to December 2016. Diagnosis of ULVT was based on doppler-ultrasonography. Clinical features, topography and symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) were analyzed. The sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative value (NPV) of clinical symptoms leading to ULVT suspicion were estimated by comparing patients with and without ULVT.

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RESULTS: Among 488 patients with a suspected ULVT, 160 were diagnosed with ULVT, including, 80 with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and 80 with superficial venous thrombosis (SVT). Symptomatic PE was found in 2.5 % of cases (n=4). None of the clinical symptoms of ULVT had a sensitivity greater than 40 %. For DVT, presence of superior vena cava syndrome had a 100 % PPV, 71.6 % NPV and 100 % Sp. For SVT, the presence of an cord-like induration had a 85.7 % PPV, 75.3 % NPV and 98.4 % Sp. An endovenous device was present in 87.5 % of DVT and 97.5 % of SVT cases. Malignant hemopathy was found in 43.8 % and 31.3 % of cases of DVT and SVT, respectively. Sepsis and solid neoplasia were present in 25 % and 15 % of cases of ULVT, respectively. Peripherally inserted central catheter or implantable sites were present in 40 % and 17.5 % of DVT patients. No solid neoplasia, hematological malignancy or thrombophilia were diagnosed in patients with ULVT.

CONCLUSION: An endovenous device was involved in 92.5 % of cases of ULVT. The prevalence of symptomatic PE was low. Hematological malignancies, sepsis and neoplasia were the most common conditions present in patients with ULVT.



Reference:

Drouin, L., Pistorius, M.A., Lafforgue, A., N’Gohou, C., Richard, A., Connault, J. and Espitia, O. (2018) Upper-extremity venous thrombosis: A retrospective study about 160 cases. La Revue de Médecine Interne. August 16th. . .

doi: 10.1016/j.revmed.2018.07.012.

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