Tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric intestinal failure

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Parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure (IF) often requires a tunneled central venous catheter (CVC). The purpose of this study was to characterize complications after CVC placement and contributors to line loss in pediatric IF patients” Anderson et al (2018).

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure (IF) often requires a tunneled central venous catheter (CVC). The purpose of this study was to characterize complications after CVC placement and contributors to line loss in pediatric IF patients.

METHODS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of pediatric (<18 y) IF patients who had a silicone tunneled CVC newly inserted or exchanged from 2012 to 2016 in an IF center was conducted. Patient demographics, procedure service (surgery versus interventional radiology), procedure type (new versus exchange), vessel, and complications related to CVCs were evaluated. Complications included dislodgement, infection, break, occlusion/malfunction, and others. An ethanol-lock protocol for silicone CVCs in IF patients was instituted in January 2012. RESULTS: Twenty-nine IF patients with tunneled CVCs were identified with 182 lines and 18,534 line d. Median age at line insertion was 17.1 mo (interquartile range 7.6-31.5) with a median of five catheters (IQR 2-8) per patient. There were 19.2 complications per 1000 line d. Occlusions/malfunctions were the most common complication (6.0/1000 line d) followed by breaks (5.6/1000 line d). Median life of catheters was 51.5 d (IQR 21-129). On regression, adjusting for age, insertion service, and procedure type, shorter line life was associated with younger age (P = 0.04) and placement by interventional radiology (P < 0.01). Dislodgement was associated with newly placed lines relative risk 6.5 (95% CI 2.2-28.8). CONCLUSIONS: CVCs in pediatric IF patients have frequent complications and short line lifetimes. Dislodgement of CVC was an unexpectedly common complication with loss of access in newly placed lines. There may be modifiable processes to mitigate CVC complications.

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Reference:

Anderson, K.T., Bartz-Kurycki, M.A., Martin, R., Imseis, E., Austin, M.T., Speer, A.L., Lally, K.P. and Tsao, K. (2018) Tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric intestinal failure: a single-center experience. The Journal of Surgical Research. 231, p.346-351.

doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.05.081.

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