Success rates of paediatric peripheral intravenous (PIV) line placement

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Intravenous literature: Reigart, J.R., Chamberlain, K.H., Eldridge, D., O’Brien, E.S., Freeland, K.D., Larsen, P., Goff, D. and Hartzog, T.H. (2012) Peripheral Intravenous Access in Pediatric Inpatients. Clinical Pediatrics. Jan 20. [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract:

Background: Peripheral intravenous (PIV) line placement is a time-consuming procedure performed on the majority of general pediatric inpatients, with significant discomfort to patients.

Objective: To determine parameters of pediatric PIV placement, including success rates, time to success, and factors associated with success.

Design: Prospective study involving direct observation of PIV placement by trained research staff.

Setting: General inpatient wards at 2 medium-sized pediatric hospitals.

Patients: Hospitalized children younger than 19 years.

Results: Successful placement was achieved in 95.8% (567/592) cases with a median time of 9 minutes. Children younger than 2 years were less likely to have success on the first attempt (38.9% vs 53.5%) and have longer time to success (11 minutes).

Conclusions: Children younger than 2 years experienced lower first-attempt successful PIV placement and took longer. The overall success rate was similar to prior reports; these data are the first to show differential PIV success by patient age.

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