Intravenous literature: Suren, M., Kaya, Z., Ozkan, F., Erkorkmaz, U., Ar?c?, S. and Karaman, S. (2012) Comparison of the use of the Valsalva maneuver and the eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA(®)) to relieve venipuncture pain: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Anesthesia. Dec 14. [Epub ahead of print].
PURPOSE: Intravenous cannulation is a painful and stressful procedure. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of the eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA(®)) with that of the Valsalva maneuver in adult patients during i.v. cannulation.
METHODS: One hundred ninety-five patients were randomized prospectively to three groups. The dorsum of the nondominant hand was covered with a thick paste of 2.5 g of EMLA(®) cream in the EMLA(®) group (group E) and left for a minimum of 30 min before venipuncture. In the control group (group C), the same procedure was applied except that Vaseline(®) was used instead of the EMLA(®). The Valsalva group (group V) were punctured during a Valsalva maneuver. The patients were placed in the supine position during venipuncture. The patients then scored the amount of pain on cannulation using an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain, 10 = extreme pain).
RESULTS: Thirteen patients were excluded from the analysis due to failed cannulation. There was no difference in the demographic profiles of the groups (p > 0.05). The success of VP was significantly higher in group V than in groups E and C (p < 0.001). The median pain score as assessed by the NRS after venipuncture in group C was 3 (range 0-9), whereas the median pain values in groups E and V were 2 (range 0-7) and 2 (range 1-8).
CONCLUSIONS: The Valsalva maneuver yields similar results to the EMLA(®) in terms of pain reduction during venipuncture.