#IVTEAM #Intravenous literature: Fettiplace, M.R., Ripper, R., Lis, K., Feinstein, D.L., Rubinstein, I. and Weinberg, G. (2013) Intraosseous Lipid Emulsion: An Effective Alternative to IV Delivery in Emergency Situations. Critical Care Medicine. October 18th. [epub ahead of print].
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intraosseous infusion of a lipid emulsion reverses cardiac pharmacotoxicity in anaesthetized rats.
DESIGN: Prospective, randomized animal study.
SETTING: Academic research laboratory.
SUBJECTS: Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats.
INTERVENTIONS: We assigned 25 male Sprague-Dawley rats into four groups: intraosseous lipid emulsion, intraosseous saline, IV lipid emulsion, and sham/null. Rats were anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane and 95% oxygen. The left internal carotid artery and both internal jugular veins were cannulated and a flow probe was placed on the right carotid artery. Subsequently, in animals assigned to the intraosseous groups, the greater trochanter of the left proximal femur was exposed and the intraosseous space was cannulated. After surgical recovery, bupivacaine (10 mg/kg) was injected IV over 20 seconds followed 10 seconds later by treatment with one of the following: intraosseous lipid-emulsion (10 mL/kg over 180 s), intraosseous saline (10 mL/kg over 180 s), IV lipid-emulsion (10 mL/kg over 90 s), or no treatment (sham/null).
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Electrocardiogram, aortic blood pressure, and carotid blood flow were recorded continuously. Rats treated with intraosseous lipid emulsion experienced a significantly faster recovery of hemodynamic variables (return of 50% flow; median [CI]: 160 s [105-263 s]) than did rats treated with saline (471 s [283-611 s]; p < 0.05) or animals with no treatment (415 s [340-539 s], p < 0.05), but at a similar rate to animals treated with IV lipid emulsion (176 s [152-217 s], p = not significant). All groups experienced persistent negative chronotropic effects. A compensatory increase in systemic arterial pressure was observed in rats treated with lipid emulsion.
CONCLUSION: These proof-of-principle data indicate that intraosseous infusion of lipid emulsion rapidly reverses bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Further studies are warranted to optimize this novel route of lipid emulsion injection in emergency situations when intravascular access is not secured.