Intravenous literature: Cobrado, L., Silva-Dias, A., Azevedo, M.M., Pina-Vaz, C. and Rodrigues, A.G. (2012) In vivo antibiofilm effect of cerium, chitosan and hamamelitannin against usual agents of catheter-related bloodstream infections. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Sep 18. .
OBJECTIVES: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are common healthcare-associated infections associated with increased morbidity and medical costs. Antiseptic- and antibiotic-coated central venous catheters (CVCs) have been proposed to reduce the incidence of CRBSIs, with variable success. The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo antibiofilm activity of biocompatible and inexpensive compounds, such as cerium nitrate, chitosan and hamamelitannin, against usual agents of CRBSIs.
METHODS: The antibiofilm effect of cerium nitrate, chitosan and hamamelitannin was tested against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii and Candida albicans in a mouse foreign body infection model, using polyurethane catheter segments. Biofilm formation was assessed with a crystal violet assay to quantify the total biomass, with a tetrazolium reduction assay to quantify the metabolic activity and with scanning electron microscopy.
RESULTS: At subinhibitory concentrations, cerium nitrate significantly reduced biofilm formation by C. albicans, chitosan significantly decreased biofilm formation by S. epidermidis and C. albicans, and hamamelitannin significantly inhibited all bacterial biofilms.
DISCUSSION: The in vivo antibiofilm effect of cerium nitrate against C. albicans and of chitosan against C. albicans and S. epidermidis, at subinhibitory concentrations, makes them promising alternatives to coat CVCs. Moreover, the microbicidal effect on a wider range of CVC colonizers was previously reported in vitro for both compounds, at higher concentrations. For all bacterial strains, the highest in vivo antibiofilm efficacy was achieved with hamamelitannin. For A. baumannii, this is the first report of in vivo inhibition.