Intravenous literature: Nishihara, Y., Kajiura, T., Katsuhiro, Y., Kobayashi, H. and Okubo, T. (2012) A Comparative Clinical Study Focusing on the Antimicrobial Efficacies of Chlorhexidine Gluconate Alcohol for Patient Skin Preparations. Journal of Infusion Nursing. 35(1), p.44-50.
Comparative efficacy study data showed that skin preparations formulated with more than 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in alcohol produced significant reductions in microbial populations at the inguinal, abdominal, and antecubital sites at each sample time (P < .05) relative to baseline, and there were no significant differences statistically, including persistent effects within 24 hours (P > .05). It would be reasonable to expect that a 1% CHG-ethanol skin preparation (with >0.5% GHC in alcohol) could be chosen in Japan that would perform well and have promising potential for catheter preparation/maintenance preparation with consideration for recommendation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s guideline dssuei in 2011.