Screening for risk factors related to peripherally inserted central catheter-associated complications

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“Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are increasingly utilized. Patient and system factors that increase risk of complications should be identified to avoid preventable patient harm.” Moran et al (2014).

Reference:

Moran, J., Colbert, C.Y., Song, J., Mathews, J., Arroliga, A.C., Vargheesk S., Hull, J. and Reddy, S. (2014) Screening for novel risk factors related to peripherally inserted central catheter-associated complications. Journal of Hospital Medicine. June 9th. .

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are increasingly utilized. Patient and system factors that increase risk of complications should be identified to avoid preventable patient harm.

METHODS: A case control analysis of adult inpatients who underwent PICC placement from January 2009 to January 2010 at Scott & White Memorial Hospital was conducted to determine the incidence and risk factors for complications. One hundred seventy cases of inpatients who experienced PICC-related complications were identified. Age- and gender-matched controls were randomly selected among patients who underwent PICC placement without documented complications during this time.

RESULTS: A total of 1444 PICCs were placed, with a complication rate of 11.77% (95% confidence interval: 10.11%-13.44%). Complications included catheter-associated thrombosis (3%), mechanical complications (4%), catheter-associated bloodstream infections (2%), and cellulitis (1%). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, malnutrition and after-hours placement were significantly associated with increased risk of complications, as was body mass index (BMI) >30 after adjusting for anticoagulation and time of placement. In a secondary multivariable logistic regression analysis, after-hours placement and malnutrition were significantly associated with increased risk of nonmechanical complications. Additionally, in conditional univariate analyses, length of stay, malnutrition, and after-hours placement were associated with increased risk of catheter-associated thrombosis. In our multivariable logistic regression analyses, use of anticoagulation/antiplatelet agents was associated with decreased risk of all-cause complications, nonmechanical complications, and catheter-associated thrombosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Screening of patients undergoing PICC placement with attention to malnutrition, BMI >30, and length of stay may reduce the risk of PICC-associated complications. Use of anticoagulation/antiplatelet agents and avoiding after-hours placement may reduce complications and enhance patient safety.

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