Review of vascular access for hemodialysis

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A well-functioning vascular access is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis procedure, which directly affects the quality of life in hemodialysis patients” Dinh and Nguyen (2018).

Abstract:

A well-functioning vascular access is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis procedure, which directly affects the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. We use three main types of access: native arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter. Arteriovenous fistula remains the first and best choice for chronic hemodialysis. It is the best access for longevity, the lowest related complications, and for this reason, arteriovenous fistula use is strongly recommended by guidelines from different countries, including Vietnam. In practice, well-functioning arteriovenous fistula creation is not always simple. In this case, arteriovenous fistula creation with vein transposition or translocation is certainly useful. When native vein options have been exhausted, prosthetic can be used as the second option of maintenance hemodialysis access alternatives. Central venous catheters are very common and have become an important adjunct in maintaining patients on hemodialysis. In Bach Mai hospital, we certainly create about 1000 new arteriovenous fistulas every year (among these, about 84.98% new hemodialysis patients start hemodialysis without permanent accesses and depend on temporary central venous catheters) and successfully matured arteriovenous fistula rate is 92.6%. Among hemodialysis population in Bach Mai, 2.29% have arteriovenous grafts and 2.81% of patients still depend on cuffed tunneled catheters. The preferable locations for catheter insertions are the internal jugular and femoral veins. Proper vascular access maintenance requires integration of different professionals to create a vascular access team. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is not available. In our circumstance, we have achieved some advantages for hemodialysis patients but still a big gap to an advanced country.

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Reference:

Dinh, L.D. and Nguyen, D.H. (2018) Vascular access for hemodialysis: Current practice in Vietnam. The Journal of Vascular Access. December 31st. .

doi: 10.1177/1129729818771883.

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