Intravenous literature: Vickery, K., Allan, J., Jacombs, A., Valente, P. and Deva, A. (2011) Prevention of Implantable Medical Device Failure (IMD) Associated with Biofilm Infection. AJIC: American Journal of Infection Control. 39(5), p.E45.
Bacteria attach to all IMD and tissue engineering constructs where they form a three dimensional biofilm of cells and excreted polymeric substances. 5-10% of patients develop a HAI and of these 60-70% are associated with an IMD including prosthetic heart valves, orthopaedic implants, vascular and urinary catheters.