Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) following insertion of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)

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Intravenous literature: Rao, N.M., Raychev, R., Kim, D. and Liebeskind, D.S. (2012) Elucidating the mechanism of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case of transient blindness after central venous catheterization. Neurologist. 18(6), p.391-4.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a condition characterized by reversible symptoms including headache, visual disturbances, focal neurological deficits, altered mentation, and seizures. It has been associated with circumstances that may affect the cerebrovascular system, such as hypertension, eclampsia, and immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors. The underlying etiology of PRES has remained unclear; however, cerebrovascular autoregulatory dysfunction, hyperperfusion, and endothelial activation have been implicated.

CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a young patient with lung transplant, who presented with headache, acute binocular blindness, and seizure immediately after infusion of saline through a peripherally inserted central catheter line, which inadvertently terminated cephalad in the left internal jugular vein, near the jugular foramen. Subsequent brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed vasogenic edematous lesions in a pattern consistent with PRES-a diagnosis supported by his constellation of symptoms, history of lung transplantation on tacrolimus immunosuppression, and relative hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case describing the development of PRES after the insertion of a peripherally inserted central catheter line. The development of PRES in a typical high-risk patient immediately after cerebral venous outflow obstruction implicates the role of the cerebral venous system and provides potential insight into the mechanism of this disorder that remains of unclear pathogenesis.

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