Pediatric central line-associated bloodstream infections

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Intravenous literature: Barrell, C., Covington, L., Bhatia, M., Robison, J., Patel, S., Jacobson, J.S., Buet, A., Graham, P.L. and Saiman, L. (2011) Preventive strategies for central line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. American Journal of Infection Control. Sep 9. [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Few studies have described preventive strategies for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients.

METHODS: We performed a pilot intervention study in our pediatric HSCT population in 2006-2008 and compared CLABSI rates before and after implementation of preventive strategies (ie, training staff and caregivers in procedures for dressing changes and drawing blood) in the inpatient, outpatient, and non-health care (ie, home) settings. We also studied the pathogens associated with hospital-onset versus community-onset CLABSIs.

RESULTS: During the study period, 90 children (median age, 10 years) underwent HSCT. Fifty-nine children (66%) developed a CLABSI; 18 in the hospital, 27 in the community, and 14 in both settings. After implementation of central line (CL) maintenance care strategies, the overall CLABSI rate declined from 10.03 to 3.00 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL-days (rate ratio, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.5, P < .0001) and rates declined for both hospital- and community-onset CLABSIs. Gram negative pathogens caused more community-onset (45/65, 69%) than hospital-onset (22/46, 48%) CLABSIs (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.4; P = .02).

CONCLUSIONS: Standardization of care practices for CL maintenance was associated with a reduction of CLABSIs in our pediatric HSCT population. A multicenter study is needed to confirm these observations.

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