Parenteral versus oral iron for treatment of iron deficiency anaemia

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The burden of iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy and post-partum continues to remain high especially in India. Challenges to treatment include gastrointestinal side effects and non compliance to oral iron therapy. Newer parenteral formulations need to be explored as alternatives” Radhika et al (2019).

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: The burden of iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy and post-partum continues to remain high especially in India. Challenges to treatment include gastrointestinal side effects and non compliance to oral iron therapy. Newer parenteral formulations need to be explored as alternatives.

METHODS: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials published between years 2011 and 2018 comparing anaemic pregnant and post-partum women treated with intravenous iron sucrose versus oral iron was performed. The primary outcomes were mean maternal haemoglobin, serum ferritin and haematocrit at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks and comparison of adverse effects.

RESULTS: Eighteen studies including 1633 antenatal women were randomly assigned to intravenous iron sucrose (n = 821) or oral iron group (n = 812) in ten trials . Another eight studies compared iron sucrose infusion with oral iron in 713 post-partum women who were randomly assigned to intravenous iron sucrose group (n = 351) or oral iron group (n = 362). Cumulative analysis of all the time points indicates that the estimated mean values of Hb in the intravenous iron sucrose and oral iron groups were 10.11 g/dl and 9.33 g/dl, respectively, in antenatal group, while it was 10.57 g/dl and 9.74 g/dl in post-partum. The estimated mean ferritin level from first week to six weeks was 63.1 μg/l and 28.6 μg/l, respectively, in intravenous and oral iron groups. Cumulative estimate of haematocrit in the intravenous sucrose and oral iron over 6 weeks showed that the mean values in the respective groups were 30.5% and 29.5% in antenatal and 33.8% and 31.6%, respectively, in post-partum groups. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the reliability and consistency of the results. Oral iron was associated with significant gastrointestinal side effects. There was no significant difference in birthweight between the groups.

CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates that intravenous iron sucrose is more effective than oral iron therapy for pregnant and post-partum women with iron deficiency anaemia. It is an effective and safe alternative to address the problem of iron deficiency especially in those who require rapid replacement of iron stores though medical personnel for intravenous administration of drug is required.Trial registration CRD42015024343.

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Reference:

Radhika, A.G., Sharma, A.K., Perumal, V., Sinha, A., Sriganesh, V., Kulshreshtha, V. and Kriplani, A. (2019) Parenteral Versus Oral Iron for Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anaemia During Pregnancy and post-partum: A Systematic Review. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India. 69(1), p.13-24.

doi: 10.1007/s13224-018-1191-8.

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