Intravenous literature: Yang, R.Y., Moineddin, R., Filipescu, D., Parra, D., Amaral, J., John, P., Temple, M. and Connolly, B. (2012) Increased complexity and complications associated with multiple peripherally inserted central catheter insertions in children: the tip of the iceberg. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 23(3), p.351-7.
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of repeated placements of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) on the venous system in children.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children who underwent successful first-time PICC placements between 2005 and 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. Patient demographics, procedural data, and complications were obtained from hospital databases. Data from subsequent PICC insertions were compared with those from previous PICC insertions. A generalized estimating equation was used with appropriate statistical tests for data analysis.
RESULTS: PICCs were grouped into four groups: first PICCs (n = 1,274), second PICCs (n = 167), third PICCs (n = 52), and fourth to seventh PICCs (n = 32). Successive PICCs were associated with progressively increased difficulty of access compared with earlier PICCs, as demonstrated by significant increases in procedural duration (P = .01) and fluoroscopy time (P = .005). Increased complexity was also evident through significant increases in the percentages of cases that required venography/digital subtraction angiography (P>.0001), multiple attempts to gain venous access (P <.0001), and a switch to another limb for venous access (PÂ >.0001) between subsequent and first PICCs. In addition, rates of procedural complications also increased for subsequent PICCs compared with first PICCs (PÂ >.0001). Furthermore use of the most preferred vein for vascular access significantly decreased in subsequent versus first PICC insertions (PÂ >.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Increased procedural complexity and complications were found with successive PICC insertions. These results confirm the need for a prospective study to directly assess the long-term effects of PICCs on venous patency.