Intravenous literature: Wongkerdsook, W., Agthong, S., Amarase, C., Yotnuengnit, P., Huanmanop, T. and Chentanez, V. (2011) Anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve in relation to the lateral epicondyle and cephalic vein. Clinical Anatomy. 24(1), p.56-61.
The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) is the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve supplying the lateral aspect of forearm. Because of its close proximity to the biceps brachii tendon (BBT), the lateral epicondyle (LE), and the cephalic vein (CV), surgery and venipuncture in the cubital fossa can injure the LACN. Measurement data regarding the relative anatomy of LACN are scarce. We, therefore, dissected 96 upper extremities from 26 males and 22 females to expose the LACN in the cubital fossa and forearm. The LACN consistently emerged from the lateral margin of BBT. It then pierced the deep fascia distal to the interepicondylar line (IEL) in 84.4% with mean distances of 1.8 +/- 1.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.9 cm (male and female, respectively). At the level of IEL, the LACN in all cases was medial to the LE (5.9 +/- 1.1 cm male and 5.2 +/- 0.9 cm female). Two types of branching were observed: single trunk (78.1%) and bifurcation (21.9%). Asymmetry in the branching pattern was observed in 6 males and 1 female. Concerning the relationship to the CV, the LACN ran medially within 1 cm at the level of IEL in 78.7%. Moreover, in 10 specimens, the LACN was directly beneath the CV. In the forearm, the LACN tends to course medial to the CV. Significant differences in the measurement data between genders but not sides were found in some parameters. These data are important for avoiding LACN injury and locating the LACN during relevant medical procedures.