Intravenous literature: Tsai, M.H., Hsu, J.F., Lien, R., Huang, H.R., Chiang, C.C., Chu, S.M., Liang, H.F. and Huang, Y.C. (2011) Catheter management in neonates with bloodstream infection and a percutaneously inserted central venous catheter in situ: Removal or not? American Journal of Infection Control. Aug 11. [Epub ahead of print].
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether removal of a percutaneously inserted central venous catheter (PICC) is compulsory in neonates with bloodstream infection (BSI), and also examined the risk factors for infectious complications when a PICC is retained in these patients.
METHODS: This was a cohort study of neonates with a PICC who developed a BSI between 2001 and 2007. BSI was defined according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria.
RESULTS: Of the 234 neonates in the cohort, 99 had early removal of PICC (ER-PICC, defined as removal within 3 days after the onset of clinical sepsis), and 135 had late removal of PICC (LR-PICC, defined as retention for more than 3 days after the onset of clinical sepsis). Resolution of clinical sepsis within 2 days was more frequent in the ER-PICC group compared with the LR-PICC group (80.8% vs 57.8%; P < .001). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of infectious complications and case fatalities, but the LR-PICC group had a significantly higher incidence of recurrence within 1 month after BSI (P = .002). Inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment was the only variable independently associated with infectious complications (odds ratio, 11.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.34âˆ¼39.2; P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: PICCs should be removed in neonates with BSI, because retention of PICCs for more than 3 days is associated with delayed resolution of clinical sepsis and a higher incidence of recurrence within 1 month.