Multi-institutional outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex associated with contaminated mannitol solution

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Intravenous literature: Souza Dias, M.B., Cavassin, L.G., Stempliuk, V., Xavier, L.S., Lobo, R.D., Sampaio, J.L., Pignatari, A.C., Borrasca, V.L., Bierrenbach, A.L. and Toscano, C.M. (2013) Multi-institutional outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex associated with contaminated mannitol solution prepared in compounding pharmacy. American Journal of Infection Control. May 7th. [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) has been described as a cause of nosocomial outbreaks. We describe an outbreak of and identify risk factors for nosocomial BCC infections associated with intrinsically contaminated mannitol 3% solution.

METHODS: Urinary and bloodstream infection caused by BCC were identified in hospitalized patients who underwent urologic surgery and received intraoperative irrigation of 3% mannitol solution in February 2009. The investigation included retrospective chart review, case control study, procedural review, and culture of mannitol solution.

RESULTS: Seven BCC infections were identified. BCC isolates were recovered from blood and/or urine from patients and lots of mannitol in use during the outbreak period. Mannitol solution was produced by a compounding pharmacy. Receipt of larger volumes of contaminated solution was identified as a significant risk factor for infection (odds ratio, 1.5; P value < .05). BCC was also cultured in lots of mannitol in use in other hospitals.

CONCLUSION: Manipulated mannitol solution is a potential source of infection. Contamination with paraben-degrading organisms can occur at the time of manufacture. Our findings suggest that contamination of mannitol at a compounding pharmacy occurred. Prompt communication to other hospitals and implementation of infection control measures were effective in avoiding further cases of infection.

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