Intravenous literature: Gasior, A.C., Marty Knott, E. and Peter, S.D. (2013) Management of peripherally inserted central catheter associated deep vein thrombosis in children. Pediatric Surgery International. 2013 Jan 23.
INTRODUCTION: No protocol exists for prophylaxis or therapeutic management of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) related deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in children. Currently, very few patients are provided prophylaxis for DVT. In this study, we analyzed our current practice of PICC placement to identify the frequency of DVT, analyze risk factors and determine current treatment patterns in order to determine the need for protocols.
METHODS: The dataset was retrospectively collected from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2011. Patients with an upper extremity PICC were assessed for subsequent DVT formation. Variables included: demographics, co-morbidities, method of DVT diagnosis, treatment course, and recurrence.
RESULTS: There were 1,289 PICC placements, with 24 (1.9 %) per line events of DVT in 23 patients, of which 3 had recent surgery, 2 had sepsis, 1 had a family history of clots, and 2 had a malignancy. All but one was symptomatic. Diagnosis was made in 92 % by ultrasound, the remaining with CT. No patients had prophylaxis. Of the seven patients who underwent hypercoagulable work-up, three were positive. 15 patients were treated with enoxaparin, 5 patients were treated with heparin, 2 treated with tissue plasminogen activator and 2 were observed. 84 % were treated with long-term enoxaparin for a mean of 3.3 months with 54 % proven clot resolution and 1 patient had recurrence of UE DVT.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of DVT with PICC placement is small in children and prophylaxis can probably be reserved for those with previous DVT or known hypercoagulable state.